Welcome page

Solomon Studies

Check out these descriptive studies on Solomon

a set of ten unique studies

Why is Solomon Often Neglected?
The main reason for the neglect is because King Solomon did not finish his life well, but there are other reasons. Secondly, the content of the first eleven chapters of First Kings, especially the construction of buildings and the organization of the work, does not seem very spiritual to most readers. Thirdly, Freemasons and Mormons misuse Solomon's temple and many selfishly try to use his writings in order to become rich. Because of all this false teaching, true followers of Jesus are often reluctant to study Solomon.

Why should Solomon's Life be Studies?
There is much to learn from Solomon and the inspired chapters in First Kings about his life and reign. So to skip over the First Temple and other important aspects of Solomon's life simply because they are often misused is like avoiding all biblical prophecy because false cults exist. In fact, it may be the prophetic implications of Solomon's reign that have been overlooked most. So one of the main purposes of these studies is to help Christians rediscover the prophetic implications of Solomon's reign.

Descriptive Bible Studies
The descriptive method and Describe-It-Yourself materials are used to make most points in these studies on the life of Solomon. So it may be helpful to check out the D.I.Y. material and method first, because it is far better to try to describe people and things in the Bible yourself than just considering the suggestions made by the author.

A Note for Study Leaders
Make cards with the various descriptive terms that appear in each lesson below and use these cards when leading a discussion of the person or thing being described. This will make the studies interactive and more lively than they would be if simply taught top-down in lecture format.

1. Solomon's Early Years as King

Early Wisdom
Solomon is famous for having received special wisdom from the Lord in First Kings chapter three. Yet, he was also at least somewhat wise from the beginning of his reign in chapters one and two. David spoke of this in 2:9, and Solomon himself showed wisdom in his dealings with various people. Which of the descriptive terms and phrases below do you think are correct? Caution: some phrases may only be partly correct.

In his early years as king, was Solomon... cautiously restrained (1:52-53, 2:26-27, 2:36-38), taking care of unfinished business (2:13-46), taught by David (2:1-9), tested by Adonijah (2:13-25), wise regarding Abiathar the priest (2:26-27), wise regarding his older brother, Adonijah (1:50-53, 2:13-25), wise regarding Pharaoh (3:1), wise regarding Shimei (2:8-9, 2:36-45), wiser than Adonijah (2:13-25), wiser than his mother, Bathsheba (2:13-25), wiser than his own son, Rehoboam (12:1-17), and / or less wise than later (3:16-28)?

The most questionable phrase above is the one about Pharaoh. Was it wise for Solomon to make a treaty with the king of Egypt? Maybe, but was it wise for Solomon to marry Pharaoh's daughter? Of course, this was the way that treaties were often sealed at the time. So without her, there probably would have been no treaty. Yet, she was the first of many foreign princesses that Solomon married to seal diplomatic and economic ties. In the end, this was disastrous.

Even so, Solomon's many wives are never mentioned until chapter 11, and other than Pharaoh's daughter no foreign wife is mentioned until then. Obviously, he married many others in the years that passed between 3:1 and 11:1. So why were they mostly kept hidden and out of the record? Was it because polygamy was ok and only idolatry was problematic? Certainly not! There must be another reason.

With or without special wisdom,
Solomon was not wise in marriage.

What about Shimei?
Solomon’s wise dealing with Shimei and the prominence of this otherwise little-known character is especialy impressive. The Benjamite who cursed David was singled out to stress that David’s line was firmly established and blessed rather than cursed (2:44-46). The establishment of the kingdom in line with the Davidic covenant was stressed again later through the temple pillars (7:21-22).

How is Solomon's early wisdom and the lack thereof relevant for us today?
There is many positive things to learn from Solomon’s early reign. He listened to and obeyed his father. He did not act hastily. Yet, he was decisive when he should have been. That said, though Solomon was a wise king in most ways, regarding marriage, he mostly had to learn the hard way. Thankfully, we can benefit from his mistakes through the record in Kings and his practical advice in Proverbs.

2. Solomon's Wisdom - 1 Kings 3:4-28 (Also see 2 Chronicles 1:6-12.)

How would you describe Solomon's wisdom in chapter three?
Was Solomon's wisdom... better than riches (3:9-13), biblical (3:14), breathtaking (10:5), closely linked to listening (3:9), conditional (3:14), down to earth (3:16-27), faith-based (3:7), for the sake of others (3:8-9), foundational (3:13), from God (3:5-13), in line with Psalm 119:98-199, judicial (3:9), like a special spiritual gift, mature rather than childish (3:7), necessary (3:7-9), organization (4:1-19, 5:1-7), practical, purposeful (3:9), supernatural, tragically lost in later life (11:1-13), unique (3:12-13), unselfish, and / or widely known (3:16-28)?

What kind of wisdom did Solomon have?
Above all, it was from God which explains how special and unique it was. It was supernatural, like a spiritual gift, rather than based on natural intelligence or education. Secondly, humanly speaking, it was faith-based, necessary, and for the sake of others. Solomon needed God's wisdom in order to judge and lead properly.

he king's wisdom regarding the two woman at the end of chapter three seems to show that it was primarily judicial. The contents of chapter four and five, however, seem to indicate that it was primarily organizational. Together these chapters probably indicate that Solomon's wisdom was down to earth. In line with this, in chapter ten, the Queen of Sheba undoubtedly questioned the king about practical governmental, judicial, and organizational matters rather than deeply theological or biblical topics. Other world rulers undoubtedly did so as well (10:24).

The Lord did not promise to give Solomon special understanding of all Scripture, for that is not what the king requested in 3:7-9. So it is only partly true to say that Solomon's wisdom was biblical and in line with Psalm 119:98-100. Moreover, he had to keep on listening to God's word in order to remain wise. So though his wisdom was special, it was also conditional (3:14, 9:4-9) and tragically lost in later life.

Solomon's wisdom was
primarily judicial and organizational
in line with his request in 1 Kings 3:7-9.

How is Solomon Wisdom Relevant for us Today?
As Solomon failed to use his God-given wisdom properly regarding marriage (First Kings chapter 11), we too can neglect the spiritual and practical guidance that God has given us. Solomon did not lose his salvation and neither will we, but the loss is always great when one fails to listen to God's word (3:14).

Solomon may have been too focused on being a good judge and organizer. Likewise, believers today, including pastors, can be too focused on obtaining wisdom regarding organization and leadership from the social sciences. The church growth movement has tragically led some of today's most gifted leaders astray in this way.

3. Solomon's Place in God's Plan

Missing Prophets?
Although Elijah and Elisha are prominent in First and Second Kings, for the most part prophets are absent from the chapters on the life of Solomon. Nathan was present when Solomon became king, but there is no direct mention of a prophet speaking to him for the rest of his life. Probably one did in 1 Kings 6:11-13, but the verses simply say that the Lord himself spoke.

First Kings 3:5-15 and 9:1-9 show that the Lord directly appeared to Solomon twice. So for the most part, the author of Kings seems to presents Solomon as a powerful ruler who himself gave wise answers (1 Kings 3:16-28, 10:3), prayed at the dedication of the temple (1 Kings 8:22-53), and encouraged the people (1 Kings 8:54-61). This fits well with King Solomon's written and spoken ministry in Proverbs and Ecclesiastes and much more as we will see later.

In Solomon's later years, however, the prophet Ahijah appeared to Jeroboam and predicted the division of the kingdom because of Solomon's idolatrous disloyalty (1 Kings 11:26-40). This was after the Lord confronted Solomon for this sin in 1 Kings 11: 9-13. As in 6:11-13, a prophet may have delivered the negative message to the king, but 11:9-13 does not put it that way. No prophet is directly mentioned. So the Lord seems to deal directly with his wayward leader. Solomon was not just another sinful king. From the beginning, he had been greatly beloved and personally known (2 Sam. 12:24-25).

Without prophets
and without many priests,
the king became far more prominent.

How does Solomon's Ministry foreshadow the future?
It is significant that priests are not mentioned much in the Solomon chapters of First Kings. Though the leading priests are named in 4:2-5 and unnamed priest appear briefly in 8:3-11, the stress is more on what Solomon did regarding the temple, the sacrifices (3:4, 8:5, 64, 9:25), the blessing of the people (8:12-21, 54-61), and intercessory prayer (8:22-53). So Solomon to some extent foreshadows the Lord Jesus who will be both King and High Priest during the millennium. The peace that David's heir enjoyed (5:3-4, 12) for many years (until 11:14) also was somewhat like the peace that will be enjoyed during Christ's millennial reign. Moreover, it may be for the purpose of showing Solomon as somewhat like the future King of kings that his polygamy is kept hidden in chapters three through ten.

How is Solomon's personal relationship to God relevant for us today?
In Christ, we can have a closer relationship with God than was possible before the incarnation and the cross, since we have a Great High Priest who prays for us and can relate to our weakness (Hebrews 3:14-15, 9:24-25). So when we study Solomon, above all, we should be thankful that our Savior, the Lord Jesus, did not fail like Solomon did. Despite Solomon's best wishes, the temple that he built was not eternal (1 Kings 8:13, 2 Kings 25:9), but the ministry and rule of the Lord Jesus has been established forever (Hebrews 1:8, 5:6).

4. Solomon's Temple

Why must Solomon's Temple be Understood Literally?
It is important to describe the First Jewish Temple in physical and historical terms because Freemasons and Mormons use it as a source of symbols without properly and adequately connecting it to the history of Israel and the rest of the Bible. It was symbolic in various ways, of course (See below.), but it was a place of godly worship rather than a place to swear terrible oaths. Likewise, it was a place for Jewish assembly rather than a symbolic work place for Freemasons or a model for future Mormon temples. Basically, Freemasons and Mormons begin with themselves and use Solomon's temple for their own purposes, rather than beginning with the Bible itself.

The First Temple was
a physical and historical building.

How would you Describe Solomon's Temple as a Physical Building?
Which of the following terms and phrases do you agree or disagree with? Which do you think are important?

Was Solomon's temple... built as David directed (1 Chronicles 28:11-12), built before the kingdom was divided, built during a special time of peace (5:3-4, 11:14), built in seven years (6:38), built quietly (6:7), destroyed by the Babylonians (2 Kings 25:9), difficult to build (5:12) and furnish (7:13-14), a huge project (5:12-18), in Jerusalem (rather than Salt Lake City), in one place only, man-made, not at Bethel (12:28-33), not eternal, not just a large synagogue, only partly open to the public, somewhat like the tabernacle, too small to contain God (8:11, 23, 27), where the ark of the covenant was placed (8:1-13), with large open spaces (8:14), with storage chambers (6:5-6), with two named pillars (7:15-22), and / or with a vestibule (6:3, 2 Chronicles 3:4)?

Some of the most important points above are about how Solomon's temple was like and unlike the earlier tabernacle. As the place of the ark of the covenant (8:20-21), the yearly offering of the High Priest on the Day of Atonement is implied (Leviticus 16:1-5), though it is NOT mentioned. Probably this is because the emphasis in Kings is on the establishment of the messianic line through David rather than the offerings made by priests. The two bronze pillars, which were not in the tabernacle, are connected with this since Jachin is from the verb meaning to establish. The other pillar, Boaz, is about strength. So together they form a prayer for the Lord to establish the messianic line by his strength. The custom of kings, especially new kings, to address the people while standing near these pillars began with Solomon and continued thereafter. (See 2 Kings 11:14 and 2 Chronicles 23:13.)

The fact that the temple was in one place only also is important. One of its main purposes was to promote unity in Jerusalem centered in the Lord. When Solomon erected places of worship for the gods of his foreign wives (1 Kings 11:5-11), he forsook the one true God and the very temple that he had built. Then after the kingdom was divided, Jeroboam forsook the Lord by forsaking the temple in Jerusalem (12:28-33). God himself departed from the temple before the Babylonian captivity (Ezekiel 10:1-19) and allowed the temple to be destroyed. Thus Solomon's temple was certainly not eternal, despite the false trust that some placed in it (Jeremiah 7:3-15).

The First Temple was
more than just a building.

How was the First Temple Not Just a Man-Made Building?
Some possible descriptive terms and phrases which may help answer this question are listed below. Which do you agree with fully or in part?

Was Solomon's temple... accepted by God (8:10-13), about God's character, built by a king with God's wisdom (5:12), closely linked to the tabernacle, for prayer (8:22-53), designed by God (1 Chronicles 28:11-12), God's house (8:10-13), linked to the future millennial kingdom (7:21), linking heaven and earth (8:10-13), messianic (7:21, 8:10-13), the opposite of pagan and cultic temples (8:10-13), somewhat symbolic (7:21, 48-50, 8:10-13), unifying (12:28-33), and / or with pillars which pointed to God's promises to David (2 Samuel 7:10-13)?

There is no doubt that God was involved in the design, construction, and indwelling of Solomon's temple, which should probably be called 'the First Temple' lest an earthly king be given too much credit. Yet, the fact that it was built according to God's design is NOT clearly stated in First Kings like it is in 1 Chronicles 28:11-12. Along with the scarcity of priests and prophets in the First Kings' account of Solomon's life, this helps make the king himself more prominent than in Chronicles. Rather than simply being more secular, however, this may be because First Kings is focused on the establishing of GOD'S covenant with David (2 Samuel 7:10-16) and his successors. The "establishing" related meaning of one pillar's names favors this view.

One of the most important phrases describing the temple says that it was the opposite of pagan and cultic temples. This is because God himself came to indwell it in a special way after the ark of the covenant was brought in (8:10-13). The temple of Solomon was NOT indwelled by demonic spirits. Moreover, the two pillars in front of the temple were not pagan objects of worship, for they pointed to the line of David and the Messiah.

Another important but simple point about the first Jewish temple is that it was for prayer. Solomon's great prayer in 1 Kings 8:22-53 shows this and fits well with Jesus' words about the temple and prayer in Luke 19:46.

The First Temple has
an enduring messianic message
and encouragement regarding prayer.

How is Solomon Temple Relevant to us Today?
In addition to pointing us to Christ as the Savior of the world, through the ark of the covenant and to the King of kings through the meaning of the pillars' names, the emphasis on prayer in Solomon's Temple continues down to us today. The Freemasons' prayers in their temples and lodges are not in Jesus' name as the Lord taught. So let us pray to and through HIM in time of need.

Yet, let us not be selfish, but rather also pray for God's plan for the salvation of Israel and the millennial kingdom to come to fruition. When Israel is once again united and dwelling in true peace because of David's Greater Son, Jesus, God's sanctuary shall again be in their midst, but in a far greater way (Ezekiel 37:21-28).

5. Solomon's Other Buildings - 1 Kings 7:1-12

Why were these Building a Mixed Blessing?
Solomon is famous for building the temple, but his other projects are significant as well. Perhaps the best way to describe them is as a mixed blessing because they were necessary, useful, and enabled by God yet also costly, time-consuming, somewhat excessive, and eventually destroyed by the Babylonians (Second Kings 25:9). Solomon's temple was also destroyed, but it would be disrespectful to say that it too was excessive.

Solomon built his own house or palace, the House of the Forest of Lebanon (a large structure with a massive amount of cedar beams and finish), the Hall of Pillars (probably an entrance and waiting area), the Hall of Judgment (where he judged difficult cases), and a special house for Pharaoh's daughter whom he had married.

The royal harem of 700 wives must have required much of the space within the palace, but this is NOT directly stated. Aside from Pharaoh's daughter, his wives are not mentioned until chapter eleven near the end of his life. In chapter seven, the building projects are presented in a more positive light. Yet, these buildings are NOT even described in Second Chronicles chapter three, because they were not as important as the temple.

Solomon's other buildings
were necessary and impressive
but not as important as the temple
even though they took longer to build.

How are these Long-Gone Building Relevant for us Today?
We are not kings, but far too often we buy houses and spend much of our time and resources on such as if we were. If Solomon had not married so many women, he would not have needed such a large house. Moreover, as chapter 11 shows, his many marriages, especially to foreign women, was the root cause of his downfall. So he would have been far better off with a smaller house. We too could be better stewards of God's time and resources IF we gave more thought to our lifestyle. Therefore Solomon's building projects are thought-provoking and a potential warning for us.

6. The Queen of Sheba - 1 Kings 10:1-13 and Matthew 12:42

How would you Describe the Queen of Sheba?
Many things could be said about her. Which of the following points do you agree with? Most of them are correct, but perhaps not totally so. - Was the Queen of Sheba... changed by the encounter, correct, curious, diplomatic, a Gentile ruler, a good listener, fearful, from far away, full of questions, generous, honest, honoring God, humbled, impressed by the Lord, impressed by Solomon, influential, outspoken, seeking God, seeking wisdom, shocked, skeptical, teachable, unlike Solomon's foreign wives, unlike the scribes and Pharisees (Matt. 12:42), and / or very wealthy?

What are the Main Points about the Queen of the South?
Jesus cited her as an example of a good listener, in contrast to the scribe and Pharisees (Matt. 12:38-42). She was also better than and unlike Solomon's foreign wives who rather than listening to him and coming to know the true God of Israel, taught Solomon to worship their false, foreign gods. Though there is not enough information in First Kings chapter ten to show that the Queen of Sheba became a true believer, at least she was somewhat teachable. Perhaps she became a true believer later. Yet for sure, her words in 10:9 were correct and honoring to God. So rather than trying to determine if she was saved or not, it is probably more important to contrast her with the king's foreign wives who come to the forefront in the next chapter.

Ideally the story of the life of Solomon would have ending in First Kings chapter ten, with the Queen of Sheba and other world rulers (10:24) coming to the greatest king on earth at that time. Such an ending would have better prefigured the future coming of all Gentile rulers to Jerusalem and the King of kings during the millennium. (Compare 1 Kings chapter ten with Isaiah 60:1-18. Also see Isaiah 55:5.)

How is the Queen of Sheba Relevant for us Today?
Like her, we too should be teachable seekers of God's wisdom, unlike many around us who are selfishly turning away from the truth in these last days. She was like the wise men in Matthew chapter two who came from a far country seeking the true King of the Jews. We should be like them and like her in this regard. -- By the way, the coming of the Magi to Jerusalem seeking the King of the Jews was a sign of the Messiah's coming that should have been anticipated. It was not just something sudden, "out of the blue."

MAKING YOUR OWN STUDIES -- with Describe-It-Yourself cards

You can make your own Descriptive Bible Studies using Describe-It-Yourself cards. All you need to do is: 1.) decide what passage(s) you wish to study, 2.) decide whom or what you wish to describe, and then 3.) use a DIY card set to help you describe what or whom you chose.

For More Information,
Click Here to Go to the
Descriptive Studies Page

There are Four Describe-It-Yourself Card Sets to choose from. Two sets, (A) and (B), are shorter to save time. In two sets, (A) and (M), all the cards have blank lines for extra thought stimulation. Over half of the cards in the Pro (P) set have blank lines as well. Beaginners may enjoy the simplicity of the Short List (B) set, but those with time for detailed studies may like the Mid List (M) or Pro List (P) sets. Yet, the best set for most users is Short List (A).

7. Unlike David?

How was Solomon Unlike David?
One obvious answer is that at the end of his life Solomon was not as loyal as David (1 Kings 11:4). David never worshiped idols, but Solomon did. Yet there are also other important differences. If a chart of people in the life of Solomon were compiled, it would look very different from the chart of people in the life of David below.

In Samuel,
David was surrounded
by harmful and helpful people.

How were the People Different in Solomon's life?
There was no Goliath like character, aside from the adversaries who began to appear late in Solomon's life (11:14) because of his sin. There were no prominent military leaders like Joab with Solomon, because it was a time of peace (4:4, 5:4). Similarly, there were no supporters like Barzillai to bring aid when the king was in need, because unlike David, Solomon never had to flee and was the richest man on earth. There were no prominent wise men like Ahithophel and Hushai with Solomon, because the Lord gave the king himself special wisdom. There was not a wise and helpful wife like Abigail or a special friend like Jonathan in the historical accounts, because for the most part the focus is mostly on Solomon himself. (Hiram, a Gentile king, was helpful however.) Also, as mentioned earlier, for the most part, priests and prophets are missing in Solomon’s life, because God, himself, seemed to deal with the king directly.

Conversely, the Queen of Sheba in 1 Kings chapter 10 and Second Chronicles chapter nine does not seem to have any similar character in the life of David. People coming from the ends of the earth seeking God-given wisdom was new (4:34, 10:24). The fantastic riches that came with God's wisdom, as seen at the end of chapter 10, are not seen in the life of David either. So, before Solomon’s sin ruined much in chapter 11, Solomon was the greatest of kings who foreshadowed the King of kings, Jesus, and God's future reign on earth.

In Kings,
Solomon himself
is usually the main focus.

How were the Overall Themes Different?
The top theme of David’s life seems to be God's protection, as symbolized by the star-shaped shield and 2 Samuel chapter 22 (Psalm 18). The overall theme of Solomon’s life was probably intended to be that the Lord will establish the line of David in such a way that the people of the whole world will be drawn to it. Of course, Solomon’s sin marred this at that time, but in the end the greater Son of David (Matt. 12:42) will make it a reality.

Likewise, the persecuted but protected life of David (aside from his imperfections) was somewhat like the first coming of the Lord Jesus, and the life of Solomon (aside from his imperfections) was somewhat like the future second coming of the Lord. The covenant promises given to David in Second Samuel chapter seven and the building of the temple link these two kings despite their great differences.

David and Solomon
should be studied together,
for God's work through them is linked.

How are these Differences Relevant for us Today?
We live between the first and second comings of Christ. So we are to remember what the Lord did for us through his incarnation, death, and resurrection, but we are also to look forward to his second coming after which justice will finally be established upon the earth.

8. Solomon's Bottom Line

How does the Record of Solomon's Life End?
Of course, his death is reported in 1 Kings 11:43 and 2 Chronicles 9:31, but there is more to report. The final chapter or Solomon's life in First Kings chapter 11 was and is not total ruin. He did not die immediately after the Lord confronted him about his idolatry (1 Kings 11:11-12); nor was the kingdom taken away from him instantly (11:12). However there were immediate and ongoing consequences. His sin, like the great sin of David, was consequential. Adversaries arose (11:14-40), but Solomon continued to live for some time.

Did Solomon Repent?
First Kings and Second Chronicles do not say that Solomon repented, but perhaps the king's bottom line is like Jonah's. The book of Jonah ends with the wayward prophet in Nineveh which was where he was supposed to be but with a bad attitude toward God. Nevertheless, that is not the end of the story. If Jonah had not repented later, we would not have the book that bares his name. Likewise, regarding Solomon, we have the book of Ecclesiastes, which most scholars agree was written in the latter years of Solomon's life. If so, Ecclesiastes 12:13-14 is Solomon's true bottom line.

12:13 Let us hear the conclusion of the whole matter: Fear God, and keep his commandments: for this is the whole duty of man. 12:14 For God shall bring every work into judgment, with every secret thing, whether it be good, or whether it be evil. 

How is Solomon's Bottom Line Relevant for us Today?
Though Solomon failed regarding his foreign wives in this latter years, his bottom line conclusion in Ecclesiastes was and still is correct. He, of course, was not talking about salvation in these verses, but he was warning us all to live rightly as believers because our sins always have consequences, even if forgiven. So Solomon's bottom line was a warning. It is also encouraging because we thereby see that Solomon apparently continued to have a certain amount of profitable ministry even in his old age. Moreover, this is why he is ranked higher than one might expect in the Bible Top 55.

9. Ranking Solomon

Why is Solomon (#5) Outranked by Saul (#4) on the Top 55 List?
It is obviously because King Saul is mentioned more in the Bible than Solomon is, but why is this so? Apparently it was important to show from the beginning of the kingdom that human kings are prone to fail. The failures of David and Solomon also stand out and help make this point, but it is mainly made through Saul. Together the first three kings and others that followed show that the world has always needed but lacked a truly righteous ruler. This is the main point made by the Bible Top 55 ranked list and cards. The world needs the Lord Jesus. He is #1, and it will be to HIM that the entire world comes doing the future millennial kingdom.

Why is Solomon (#5) Ranked so High?
The historical books of Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles alone do not account for Solomon's high ranking. As the card above shows, he was called the beloved 29 or 30 times in the Song of Solomon and the preacher in Ecclesiastes seven times. There are a number of references to him in Proverbs as well. Thus Solomon's special gift of wisdom must not be underestimated. He was not just a wiser than average king.

How are these Rankings Relevant for us Today?
Again, Solomon and all the leaders on the Bible Top 55 list point to the need for the Lord Jesus. Negatively speaking, they are a warning to not be overly attached to or dependent upon any human leader, spiritual or secular. They all fail to a greater or lesser degree. Positively speaking, the rankings show that we should always be focused on the Lord Jesus and looking forward to HIS second coming.

go to the top 55 page

10. Solomon's Psalms

Is Solomon mentioned in the Psalms?
Yes, he is, but only twice, in the titles of Psalm 72 and Psalm 127. Unlike David who was known for his spiritual songs and prayers, nearly all of Solomon's writing is wisdom literature, and even Psalm 127, a short five verse song of ascents, sounds somewhat like Ecclesiastes. Vanity is mentioned three times in the first two verses.

Psalm 127:1 Except the LORD build the house, they labour in vain that build it: except the LORD keep the city, the watchman waketh but in vain127:2 It is vain for you to rise up early, to sit up late, to eat the bread of sorrows: for so he giveth his beloved sleep. 

Did Solomon or David write Psalm 72?
The common view based on the title as it appears in most translations is that Solomon is the author. Yet, the title of Psalm 72 in the Septuagint declares that it was written for Solomon rather than by Solomon. There are pros and cons of each view, but either way the subject matter of Psalm 72 has to do with the reign of Solomon AND that of the Messiah in the future. Various lines in the Psalm are much too grand to be about Solomon alone.

Psalm 72:10 The kings of Tarshish and of the isles shall bring presents: the kings of Sheba and Seba shall offer gifts. 72:11 Yea, all kings shall fall down before him: all nations shall serve him. - - 72:17 His name shall endure for ever: his name shall be continued as long as the sun: and men shall be blessed in him: all nations shall call him blessed. 

Why is Psalm 72 Important?
This somewhat controversial Psalm is important because it clearly shows that the life and reign of Solomon was intended to foreshadow the future reign of the greater Son of David. The coming of the Queen of Sheba and the great wealth of Solomon's kingdom seen in First Kings chapter ten serves this purpose well. Sadly, the negative facts about Solomon's polygamy and idolatry in First Kings chapter eleven are what most people remember. This is like a tarnished and dirty coin, BUT still one which can be somewhat useful for its original messianic purpose. Solomon foreshadows the Messiah.

How is this Relevant for us Today?
The lives of God's servants are not perfect, but God still has a purpose for each one. Past failure may disqualify you from some aspects of Christian ministry, but if you repent God may provide other opportunities to serve. Hopefully Solomon repented. (See study #8 above.) Whether he did or not, however, the opportunity to repent is still yours. Moreover, when we think of Solomon, let's think of the Messiah and God's plan for Israel.

© 2021 by Jon F. Mahar, Hakusan City, Japan